Sankalpa Manthra and Geo Tagging

Anyone who has performed a religious function would have chanted a Sankalpa Manthra. Like any other Manthra, we would have chanted this without knowing its meaning. But this manthra is the one which enlightens us about our current position and how we got here from the beginning.

The Sankalpa Manthra goes like this.

“Aadhya Brahmanah, Dwdheeya Paraarthe, Swetha Varaha Kalpe, Vaivaswatha Manvantare, Astavikum Sathitha me, Kali Yuge, Prathame padhe, Jambooth Dweepe, Bharata Varshe, Bharata Kande, Sagaapthe Meroo, Dakshine parsve, AsminVarthamane, Vyavahaarike, Prabhavaathi Shasti Samvathsaraanam, Madhye …….(name of the year) nama samvathsare, Dakshinaayane /Uttarayane(movement of the SUN to Cancer to Capricorn),…….(Name of the season among the six seasons) Ritau,…..(Name of The Month) maase, …….pakshe(indicate the Waxing and Waning of the Moon) Punya Thithou …..(mention the Day) ”Vaasara  Yukthaayaam …mention the Nakshatra/Star Yukthaayaam…”.

Now let us see how we are tagged using this ancient Manthra.

dviteeya Parárddhae – in the 2nd half of Brahma’s life- We know that Brahma’s life consists of 100 years. We are in the second half.
Svetavaraha kalpe – in the Kalpa of Sveta-Varaha or the White Boar. The previous Kalpa –which was also the last of the first 50 years of Brahma-was called Padma while the first Kalpa of the dviteeya Parárddhae or the second half is called Sveta-Varaha.
Vaivaswatha manvantare – in the period of the current Manu Vaivaswatha who is the 7th Manu.
Ashta Vimsati tame – in the 28th Chathur Yuga of the current Manu
Kaliyuge – in this kali yuga
Prathame Padhe – in the current Yuga’s first quarter

The time tagging stops here and Geo-tagging starts.
Jambudvipe – The earth has seven great islands- Jambu, Plaksha, Shaalmali, Kusha, Kronch, Shaakh and Pushkar. The Jambudvip is situated at the center.
Bharata Varshe, Bharata Kande –  Bharata varsha is the first landmass towards the south of Sumeru/Meru Mountain.
Sakhabde Mero, Dakshine Parsve – to the South of the Meru mountain

Geo-tagging stops here and Calendar-tagging starts.

Asmin Varthamane Vyavaharike – in the current period now reigning
Prabhavadi Shasti Samvatsaranam Madya – in the middle of the cycle of 60 years according to Hindu calendar- starting with Prabhava
Nama Samvatsare – the name of the year in the 60 year Hindu calendar
….Ayane – Dakshinayane or Uttarayane (denoting the two halves of the year)
….Ritou – The rithus are six in number each consisting of 2 months.-Sisira, Vasantha, Greeshma, Varsha, Sarad and Hima. Thus 3 ritus make an ayana and 2 Ayanas make an year.
….Mase – one of the 12 hindu months
….Pakshe – either Shukla Paksham (Waxing moon) or Krishna Paksham(Waning Moon), denoting the part of the lunar month.

This is followed by one of the 15 days in the Paksham and the day’s star, thus completing the tagging.

We started with Brahma and reached our current day in about a minute (It takes just a minute to recite this Manthra). So many questions will arise, the minute we get to know the meaning of this Manthra. If we are in the second half of Brahma’s life, what happened to the first half? If we are under the 7th Manu, what happened with the previous 6?

We will see in the next post!

Understanding the four Yugas

In the last post, we saw the units of measurement as narrated by Parasarar in Vishnu Puranam. We also saw that 1 mortal year is equivalent to 1 divine day and that 12,000 divine years make one Chathur Yuga-comprising of Krita, Treta, Dwapara and Kali Yugas.

4,000 divine years make up one Krita Yuga. 3000 years make up one Treta Yuga, 2000 one Dwapara Yuga and 1000 divine years one Kali Yuga. Thus 10000 divine years are spread across the 4 Yugas, which results in 2000 years being left out of the original 12000 years. The period that precedes a Yuga is called a Sandhyá, and it is of as many hundred years as there are thousands in the Yuga: and the period that follows a Yuga, termed the Sandhyánsa, is of similar duration. One Chathur Yuga or the collection of 4 Yugas, is made thus.

400 (Sandhya before Krita Yuga) +4000 (Duration of Krita Yuga) +400 (Duration of Sandhyánsa after) = 4800

300 (Sandhya before Treta Yuga) +3000 (Duration of Treta Yuga) +300 (Duration of Sandhyánsa after) = 3600

200 (Sandhya before Dwapara Yuga) +2000 (Duration of Dwapara Yuga) +200 (Duration of Sandhyánsa after) = 2400

100 (Sandhya before Kali Yuga) +1000 (Duration of Kali Yuga) +100 (Duration of Sandhyánsa after) = 1200.

A thousand such Chathur Yugas make one day-time of Brahma. (You would be surprised to know that Brahma is actually a designation that is given to one Soul (or atman)). At the beginning of every creation, the Supreme Being or the Brahman(don’t mistake this with the word Brahmin, as both are different) appoints one soul to this post.  The age of a Brahma is 100 years.

So how does Brahma manage all of this? Well, these 1000 Yugas and His 100 years are divided between 14 Manus. The duration of each Manu is called a Manwantara. A half of his 100 years (or 50 years) makes one Parárddha.

In the next post, we will see our bread crumbs ( where and in which age we are, now) and about Pralayams.

Ciao, for now.